|Arthraxon hispidus (Thunb.) Makino (1912)
||wide range of habitats; terrestrial to acquatic, Warm temperate and tropical climate
|Avena fatua L. (1753)
||A. fatua is a cosmopolitan grass weed growing on nearly all soil types. The plant tolerates soil pH as low as 4.5 (Holm et al., 1977), but calciphilous subspecies are also found (Korniak, 1985; Hanf, 1990). Growth and viability are not restricted by low temperatures, although A. fatua has its origin in the relatively arid climate of Asia. A. fatua has relatively large seeds, the majority of which fall close to the parent plant. There are no reports of natural dispersal by wind or water, though this must occur to some extent. Movement by animals is similarly not discussed in the literature. The dispersal and spread of A. fatua is closely associated with the cultivation of cereal crops around the world. Movement over longer distances is most likely the result of importation of contaminated grain.
|Barley yellow dwarf viruses
||barley yellow dwarf
|| They are spread efficiently by several aphid vectors (Rhopalosiphum padi, Sitobion avenae, Metopolophium dirhodum, Rhopalosiphum maidis, Schizaphis graminum among others) that are prevalent worldwide. They are not mechanically or seed transmissible.
|Blissus insularis Barber
||southern chinch bug
|Boerhavia diffusa L. (1753)
||B. diffusa is a terrestrial, prostrate, perennial herb which grows to 1-1.5 m long. It propagates by root stocks and by seed, although seeds only account for 21% of reproduction. It flowers and fruits throughout the year (Mathur and Bandari, 1983